In contrast to general anesthesia, in which the molecular mechanism remains the subject of speculation, the site at which local anesthetic LA drugs bind to produce nerve blocks has been cloned and mutated. This chapter focuses on mechanisms of anesthesia and toxicity, especially as knowledge of these mechanisms will assist the clinician in conducting safer and more effective regional anesthesia. Local anesthesia was accomplished by having the operator chew coca leaves and apply the macerated pulp to the skin and wound edges while using a tumi knife to bore through the bone.
By the sixteenth century, having disrupted Incan society, the conquistadors began paying laborers with cocaine paste. The laborers generally rolled the cocaine leaves into balls called cocadas , bound together by guano or cornstarch. The Merck Company distributed batches of this agent to physicians for investigational purposes.
Elsevier: Handbook of Veterinary Pain Management, 3rd Edition: Gaynor & Muir
Sigmund Freud was the most prominent of these cocaine experimenters. Freud and Carl Koller an ophthalmology trainee took cocaine orally and noticed that the drug rendered their tongues insensible. Koller and Joseph Gartner began a series of experiments using cocaine to produce topical anesthesia of the conjunctiva. The birth of local and regional anesthesia dates from , when Koller and Gartner reported their success at producing topical cocaine anesthesia of the eye in the frog, rabbit, dog, and human.
ISBN 13: 9780323074261
The use of local anesthesia quickly spread around the world. The American surgeon William Halsted at Roosevelt Hospital in New York reported using cocaine to produce mandibular nerve block in and to produce brachial plexus block Forgot Password? What is MyAccess?
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What are VitalSource eBooks? For Instructors Request Inspection Copy. This concise quick reference guide has been thoroughly updated in its second edition. It remains clinically focused, based on experience underpinned by published research data. Drug dosages and anesthetic protocols are provided in tabular form. New to this edition are chapters covering anesthesia considerations for specific conditions and diseases, including. Appendix Anesthetic dosage reference ranges.
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He is a diplomate of American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia and a frequent speaker at regional, national and international meetings. This is a much more thorough edition with 16 new chapters and over pages of new material, but it retains its appeal with high-quality visual aids and appropriate depth.
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